Reliable Multicast at Internet Scale (Part 4): The Gotchas

Freshlex LLC (should) architect the reliable multicast infrastructure for the putative John Carmack biopic, which will hit the Internet in December of 2018. The first blog post discusses two of the enabling technologies, FCAST and ALC. The second blog post discusses the remaining three technologies, LCT, WEBRC and the FEC building block. The third blog post discusses an Architecture that integrates the five technologies. This final architecture discusses possible integration issues and challenges.

WEBRC Integration Issues

Our FCAST/ALC architecture runs over a multicast IP network. An issue arises when the multicast IP network uses RFC112 Any Source Multicast (ASM). The WEBRC building block uses multicast round trip time (MRTT) and packet loss to compute a target reception rate. The WEBRC receiver uses this target reception rate for congestion control. ASM skews MRTT and packet loss, and thus gives receivers an erroneous target reception rate.

The WEBRC receiver computes MRTT as the time it takes the receiver to receive the first data packet after sending a join request to a channel. ASM, however, initiates multicast using rendezvous points (RP). All transmitters send their data packets to an RP (decided a priori by network engineers) that may be far away. The receivers send a join to this RP. Once data packets begin to flow to the receivers, the routers switch to a shortest path tree (SPT), finding the shortest path from the transmitter to the receiver, which does not need to include the RP. [RFC5775 6]

The following (see diagram) illustrates a scenario where switching from an RP to SPT skews the WEBRC receiver MRTT computation (and therefore target reception rate). We use ASM, so “any source” transmits to the multicast address. TX-A and TX-B both have data to multicast. They transmit to the rendezvous point. The RX has no idea who is sending, they just want to join the multicast, so they send a join to the rendezvous point. The RP is three hops away. Lets say for illustrative purposes each hop adds 10ms delay. The join takes 30ms to reach the RP and then the first data packets from the multicasts for TX-A and TX-B take 30ms each.

Thus, the RX computes the MRTT for TX-A as 60ms, and the MRTT for TX-B as 60ms. At this point the multicast enabled routers switch to shortest path tree. The multicast from TX-A to the RX now only takes one hop, so the MRTT would be 2 * 10ms or 20ms. The multicast from TXB to the RX is now four hops, so the actual MRTT should be 80ms. Thus, as a result of ASM, the RX sets the target reception rate for TX-A as 66% too low, and the target reception rate for TX-B as 33% too high.

The “saving grace” in the case for TX-B would be the dropped packets, since 1/3 would drop and the RX would change the target reception rate accordingly. WEBRC, however, adjusts rates at points in time that are separated by seconds. In addition, if we lost packets during the switch over from RP to SPT then the RX would have incorrect parameters for packet loss (based on receiving or not receiving monotonically increasing sequence numbers), which would skew the target reception rate. The solution to this issue is to use SSM multicast, which does not use RP. If we must use ASM, then have one RP (and thus multicast address) per sender and put the RP as close to the sender as possible (i.e. on the first hop router at the demarc). [RFC5775 6]

Another design issue with WEBRC deals with setting the appropriate wave channel rates. We need to set the base rate to the lowest common denominator, so that all users can subscribe to it. The main purpose of the base channel is to communicate timing information (CTSI) and wave channel rates to the receivers so they can sync their joins to wave channel periods and join enough channels to reach their target rates (RFC3738 8). We need to, however find the right balance for the wave channel data rates. We need to balance granularity against number of multicast channels. If we had a video stream at OC-192 rates, would it make sense to have 3.75e+4 channels? Would the joins flood the NW? It would make sense to tune the channel rates to the expected use case. If 99% of the users have the same capacity, then we can be coarse. If the bell curve of capacity is low and wide, then we need to be more granular. The only way to find the optimal channel rates is through off line analysis, either using mathematical analysis (Bertsekas, Kleinrock, Jackson etc.) or a discrete event simulation (DES) such as Riverbed SteelCentrall NetPlanner. Off line analysis, however, requires user profiles, use cases and real life network metrics.

The following diagram illustrates a poor design choice. We have three channels, the base channel is set to T1, wave 1 is an OC-12 and wave 2 is an OC-192. A receiver with an OC-12 does not have enough capacity to join the base and wave 1, so he is stuck with just the T1 rate, a very poor efficiency.

The final issue for WEBRC deals with the length of periods for joins. We need to balance the join/leave times against available BW fluctuations. For example, if a receiver joins a channel and the BW drops significantly, the receiver can’t leave that channel until the next time slot (RFC3738 13). For the duration of the time slot, the traffic congestion may choke other congestion protocols (like TCP). The RFC recommends 10s/period (RFC3738 9). Since our data rate is constant, the receivers should not have any surprises, and this period duration should suffice. This however is still an issue and needs to be observed and addressed during live transmissions.

LCT Integration Issues

LCT provides a convenient mechanism for setting the mandatory transport session ID. As per the RFC, we have the option of using the 16-bit UDP port field to carry the TSI (RFC5651 9). I would recommend against this, since we cannot guarantee that downstream receivers would use some sort of port address translation or firewalling. Since the LCT header is mandatory and contains a field for the TSI, it’s best to just set the TSI there.

FCAST Integration Issues

To recap, FCAST uses sessions to send objects to receivers. FCAST sends objects by creating a carousel instance, filling the carousel instance with objects, and then using a carousel instance object to let receivers know which objects the carousel instance carries (RFC6968 8).

FCAST uses one session per sender, and in each session each object must have a unique Transport Object Identifier. Our integration engineers need to be aware of the potential for TOI wrapping, for long-lived sessions (RFC6968 10). FCAST gets the TOI from the LCT header.

The LCT RFC allows a finite number of bits in the LCT header for TOI (RFC5651 17). Thus, for long-lived sessions (days, weeks), TOI wrap and present ambiguity to receivers, similar to the issue of byte sequence number wrapping for TCP. A receiver may receive two separate objects with the same TOI in the course of a long-lived session. With “on demand” mode, carousels cycle through the same pieces of data a set number of times. Consider a large carousel instance, where FCAST sends an object with TOI “1”, followed by enough objects to wrap the TOI.

During the first cycle, the CI sends another, newer object with TOI “1.” The cycle finishes, and FCAST starts the cycle again, sending the original object with TOI “1.” The receiver has no idea what to do with the object of TOI “l,” since it alternates as a reference for two distinct objects. A way to prevent this issue is, once FCAST reaches the halfway point of sequence numbers, it resends any old data with a new TOI. Another way to prevent TOI wrap ambiguity is to have metadata associated with TOI, so the receiver can distinguish between two objects with the same TOI. [RFC6968 10-11]

Another integration issue relates to the Carousel Instance Object (CIO). As mentioned in the above paragraph, the CIO carries the list of the compound objects that comprise a Carouse1 Instance, and specifies the respective Transmission Object Identifiers (TOI) for the objects. The CIO contains a “complete” flag that informs the receiver that the CI will not change in the future (i.e. FCAST guarantees the sender will not add, remove or modify any objects in the current carousel instance). Consider a receiver that receives a CIO with a “complete” flag. We may be tempted to use the list of Compound Object TOI as a means to filter incoming data. The issue, however, is that FCAST treats the CIO (list of objects) as any other object, that is, there are no reserved TOI that designate an object as a CIO. Thus, the receiver will never know in advance the TOI of CIO, so the RFC recommends that the receivers do not filter based on TOI. If a receiver were to filter out all but the TOI received in CIO with a “complete” flag, that receiver would also filter out any new CIO for new carousel instances associated with the session, and the receiver may miss out on interesting objects. [RFC6968 9]

FCAST, finally, allows integrators to send an empty CIO during idle times. The empty CIO lets RX know all previous objects have been removed, and can be used as a heartbeat mechanism. [RFC6968 9-10]


Real time video content delivery systems are a challenge due to the constant, high data rates involved. RT Video CDP lend themselves to circuit switched networks that can reserve enough bandwidth from sender to receiver and let the data fly. The next best architecture would be packet switched networks that were designed for multimedia, such as the Integrated Services Data Network (ISDN) or ATM. Our customer, unfortunately, required us to deploy a CDP on the Internet. To make matters worse, they required our CDP to handle millions of simultaneous receivers. Normally, when delivering constant rate video on the Internet, engineers will use a signaling technology such as resource reservation protocol (RSVP) to guarantee bandwidth from sender to receiver. An end to end (E2E) reservation scheme, however, does not lend itself well to a system with one sender and millions of receivers.

Our challenge, therefore, was to identify and deploy a one to many, massively scalable CDP that provides asynchronous, reliable and fair, multi-rate streaming data transport. We identified a solution based on IETF standards. This paper went through the solution intent, the technologies used, the integration choices made, the integration issues avoided and the validation steps performed to ensure the success.

Update: January 2019:

In the end, we successfully integrated the architecture and met all of Warner Brothers’ requirements. Averaged over the course of the movie, the average receiver ran at 90% of the available network capacity, and utilized 87% of processor resources. The bit error rate for the average receiver was 1e-13. Finally, both Anthony Michael Hall and Dwayne ‘The Rock” Johnson went on to win academy awards for best actor and best supporting actor.


[RFC3453] Luby, M., Vicisano, L., Gemmell, J., Rizzo, L., Handley, H. and J. Crowcroft, “The Use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) in Reliable Multicast”, RFC 3453 December 2002.

[RFC3738] Luby, M. and V. Goyal, “Wave and Equation Based Rate Control (WEBRC) Building Block”, RFC 3738, April 2004.

[RFC5651] Luby, M., Watson, M. and L. Vicisano, “Layered Coding Transport (LCT) Building Block”, RFC 5651, October 2009.

[RFC5775] Luby, P., Watson, P. and L. Vicisano, “Asynchronous Layered Coding (ALC) Protocol Instantiation”, RFC 5775, April 2010.

[RFC6968] Roca, V. and B. Adamson, “FCAST: Scalable Object Delivery for the ALC and NORM Protocols”, RFC 6968, July 2013.

Reliable Multicast at Internet Scale (Part 3): The Architecture

Freshlex LLC (should) architect the reliable multicast infrastructure for the putative John Carmack biopic, which will hit the Internet in December of 2018. The first blog post discusses two of the enabling technologies, FCAST and ALC. The second blog post discusses the three technologies that enable ALC: LCT, WEBRC and the FEC building block. This blog post discusses an Architecture that integrates the five technologies.

Integration Choices

Massive scalability drives this integration effort. For the content delivery platform (CDP), we define scalability as the behavior of the CDP in relation to the number of receivers and network paths, their heterogeneity and the ability to accommodate dynamically variable sets of receivers. In general, three factors limit the scalability of a CDP. The three factors that limit the scalability of a CDP are (1) memory or processing requirements, (2) amount of feedback control and (3) redundant data traffic (RFC5651 5). The previous blog posts describe the standards used to create a massively scalable CDP. Standards, however, are not “turn-key” solutions. Engineers must make certain design choices when implementing standards. This blog post discusses the design choices made during this integration effort in order to conform to the spirit of massive scalability.

FCAST Integration Choices

Recall that FCAST uses data carousels to send objects to receivers. We have two design choices here, push mode or on demand mode (RFC6968 3). Push mode associates a single carousel instance to a cycle (RFC6968 8). On-demand mode makes compound objects available for a long period of time by using a very large number of transmission cycles. On-demand mode lends itself well to data transport, such as a software updates. A sender could have a carousel cycle for days. Clients then join the session at their leisure and leave once they receive the entire update. Push mode works better for (near) real time streaming video. The clients join at any time, but they will miss any video that occurs before their join. The integrator would need to design how to best implement this push mode. They could, for example, have one carousel instance per hour of video, with l2 minute chunks of data being an object. The carousel instance object lists the transport object ID of the five compound objects, and sets the complete flag, indicating the carousel object has a finite set of compound objects.

Integrators have many options in increasing the reliability of FCAST. For example, when using on-demand mode, an integrator can set the number of cycles to repeat for a period of time that exceeds the typical download time. In this case, you can correlate number of cycles with reliability (RFC3453 2-3). An integrator can use a backchannel for session control, for example the carousel does not stop cycling until every receiver acknowledges full receipt. In this case, FCAST is fully reliable. Of course, the concept of a backchannel is unacceptable for massive scalability.

In our integration, since we’re using push mode we don’t have the luxury of repeating cycles for reliability. For that reason we use a robust FEC building block, which is a requirement of ALC anyway (RFC5775 11).

ALC Integration Choices

The ALC standard omits application specific features to keep it massively scalable (RFC5775 5-6). An integrator can tailor the applications (e.g. FCAST) that use ALC to add features and trade scalability if needed. The backchannel mentioned above in the discussion of FCAST design choices is one such example.

The first step of an ALC session entails the receiver acquiring the session description information (RFC5775 17). The transmission of the session description information from ALC sender to the receivers is outside of the scope of the ALC standard. An integrator, regardless, has many options. The sender can describe the session description using SDP as described in RFC4566 or XML metadata in RFC3023 or HTTP/MIME headers defined in RFC2616. The sender, alternatively, can carry the session description in a Session Announcement Protocol (SAP) as per RFC2974.

We will simply have a well-known web page with session description information. When an RX wants to join a session, they go to that web page and download the session description (RFC5651 24).

FEC Integration Choices

The main unresolved question for the FEC building block pertains to the use of in-band or out-of-band channels to communicate FEC meta-data to the RX (RFC5775 11). Put another way, how does a receiver decode the following encoded message from a sender: “I’ve encoded this message using this scheme.” The previous statement is a paradox– the receiver would not be able to decode the message unless they decoded the message to obtain the correct way to decode the message. We solve this problem by providing both the FCAST transmitter and FCAST receiver software to all parties. In order to receive the streaming video, a receiver must use our player. The sender and receiver software use one FEC scheme, LDPC Staircase and Triangle FEC, as described in RFC5170. We will throw the open source zealots a bone and point them to the RFC, if they wish to build their own receiver.

The next design choice deals with the application of FEC codes. For our data carousel we chose a large systemic code from RFC5170. A FEC Data carousel using large block FEC encoder considers all k source symbols of an object as one block and produces n encoding symbols. The carousel transmits the n encoding symbols in packets in the same order in each round. A receiver joins the transmission at any point, and as long as the receiver receives at least k encoding symbols during the transmission of the next n encoding symbols the receiver can completely recover the object (RFC3453 3).

In the case of our push mode carousel, we partition our stream into objects. The FEC building block turns these objects into source symbols. The FEC building block then encodes these source symbols into encoding symbols and then the sets of the encoding symbols for each object are transmitted to each receiver.

Ideally, the FEC building block creates, encodes and transmits the source blocks in such a way that each received multicast packet is fully useful to reassemble the object independent of previous packet reception. Thus, if some packets are lost in transit between the TX & RX, the receiver uses any subsequent equal number of packets that arrive to reassemble the object (RFC3453 4). We prefer this to the alternatives, such as asking the transmitter for the missed packets (ARQ) or waiting on the carousel to re-send the desired packets (which won’t happen, since we’re in push mode and thus have one cycle per carousel). This property reduces the problems associated with push mode data carousels (RFC3453 3).

WEBRC Integration Choices

The appropriate congestion control for content bulk data transfer differs from the appropriate congestion control for streaming video. For bulk data transfer, the intent is to use all available BW and then drastically back off when there is competing traffic. Streaming delivery applications prefer a lesser, constant rate to bursty peaks, with slight or no backoff.

From the RFC, engineers tuned WEBRC to work best in situations that have a low throughput variation over time, which makes it well suited to telephony or our streaming video where a smooth rate is important. The penalty for smoother throughput, however, is that WEBRC responds more slowly (compared with TCP) to changes in available BW. [RFC3738 4]

Another reason that we use WEBRC for our streaming video application is that WEBRC was designed for applications that use fixed packet size and vary their packet reception rates in response to congestion. In general, WEBRC was designed to be reasonably fair when competing for BW with TCP flows, that is, it’s within a factor or two of the expected RX rate if TCP were used [RFC3738 4].

By default, WEBRC avoids using techniques that are not massively scalable. For example, WEBRC does not provide any mechanisms for sending information from receivers to senders, although this does not rule out protocols that both use WEBRC and that send information from receivers to senders. For massive scalability, nonetheless, we have made the integration choice not to use any backchannels. [RFC3738 1]

LCT Integration Choices

Part of the integration effort relies on how to get data objects to the LCT building block. Consider a push model, where we want to push a 50MB file via a carousel. We need to choose how to get those data into LCT. Suppose we break the file into 1KB packets. Then, if we send 50pkts/sec to one channel, it takes each RX 1,000 sec to get the file. A better implementation would be to split the file into multiple layers so that the aggregate rate is 1,000 packets/second.

With no loss, an RX now can complete the file download in 50 seconds by subscribing to all channels. Each channel, however, requires us to register a new multicast IP address with the multicast NW.

We could configure the sender to include Expected Residual Time (ERT) in the packet header extension (RFC5651 22). The ERT indicates the expected remaining time of packet transmission for either the single object carried in the session or for the object identified by the Transmission Object Identifier (TOI) if there are multiple objects carried in the session. While useful for “on- demand” mode, we don’t need to configure this for our push mode. The data we push is one time, “take it or leave it.” The ERT only applies when we send the same object out for multiple cycles. With the “one cycle per carousel” push mode, the ERT field does not provide any useful information (RFC6968 8).


This blog post discusses an Architecture that integrates the five enabling reliable multicast technologies. The next and final blog post discusses integration challenges.


[RFC3453] Luby, M., Vicisano, L., Gemmell, J., Rizzo, L., Handley, H. and J. Crowcroft, “The Use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) in Reliable Multicast”, RFC 3453 December 2002.

[RFC3738] Luby, M. and V. Goyal, “Wave and Equation Based Rate Control (WEBRC) Building Block”, RFC 3738, April 2004.

[RFC5651] Luby, M., Watson, M. and L. Vicisano, “Layered Coding Transport (LCT) Building Block”, RFC 5651, October 2009.

[RFC5775] Luby, P., Watson, P. and L. Vicisano, “Asynchronous Layered Coding (ALC) Protocol Instantiation”, RFC 5775, April 2010.

[RFC5170] Roca, V., Neumann, C., and D. Furodet, “Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Staircase and Triangle Forward Error Correction (FEC) Schemes”, RFC 5170, June 2008.

[RFC6968] Roca, V. and B. Adamson, “FCAST: Scalable Object Delivery for the ALC and NORM Protocols”, RFC 6968, July 2013.

Reliable Multicast at Internet Scale (Part 2): LCT, WEBRC and FEC

Freshlex LLC (should) architect the reliable multicast infrastructure for the putative John Carmack biopic, which will hit the internet in December of 2018. The first blog post discusses two of the enabling technologies, FCAST and ALC. This blog post discusses the three technologies that enable ALC: LCT, WEBRC and the FEC building block.

Reliable Multicast Building Block: LCT

LCT Description Since the 70’s engineers have for the most part associated the transport layer of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) protocol stack with either Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). More recently, we have real time protocol (RTP) as a session layer for real time media. This blog post introduces a new transport layer protocol, layered coding transport (LCT).

LCT acts as a building block for ALC. LCT provides a transport layer service that, in concert with FEC and WEBRC allows ALC to be a massively scalable and reliable content stream delivery protocol for IP multicast networks. RMT WG designs LCT for multicast protocols and designs LCT to be compatible with WEBRC and FEC. LCT does not require any backchannel and works well with any LAN, WAN, Intranet, Internet, asymmetric NW, wireless NW or Satellite NW (RFC5651 9). LCT works best for at least multi-GB objects that are transmitted for at least 10s of seconds. Streaming applications benefit greatly from LCT. [RFC5651 4]

LCT Architecture Definition

LCT uses a single sender that transmits objects (interesting to receivers) via packets to multiple channels for some period of time. These channels split the objects into packets and associate the packets with the object using headers. LCT works with WEBRC to provide multiple-rate congestion control. Receivers join and leave LCT layers (via ALC channels) during participation in a session to reach their target reception rate (see WEBRC).

As the name suggests, LCT uses layered coding to produce a coded stream of packets that LCT partitions into ordered sets of packets. The FEC building block codes the packets for reliability. For streaming media applications, layering allows variable transfer speeds and by extension image quality to RX with arbitrary NW capacity. The best example of LCT follows.

Imagine a web TV application split into three layers. A RX that joins the first channel would receive a black and white picture. An RX that had more capacity would join the first and second channel and receive a color picture. An RX with transparent capacity would be able to join all three layers, and receive a HD color picture. The key to this example is that the sender does not duplicate any data between layers. The RX joins successive layers to receive a higher quality picture at the cost of using more bandwidth. [RFC5651 6]




LCT Operations

The WEBRC building block sends packets associated with a single session to multiple LCT channels at rates computed to optimize multiple-rate congestion control (RFC3738 3). The receivers join one or more channels according to the NW congestion. The WEBRC building block provides LCT with information for the CCI field, which is opaque to LCT (RFC5651 16). The FEC building block codes the packets that LCT sends to channels for reliability.

On the RX side, the RX must first join an LCT session. The RX must obtain enough of the session description parameters to start the session. Once the RX has all the session description parameters the RX begins to process packets. The RX must identify & de-multiplex the packets associated the LCT session. Each LCT session must have a unique Transport Session Identifier (TSI). The LCT session scopes the TSI by the (Sender IP Address, TSI) pair. LCT stamps each packet’s LCT header with the appropriate TSI. [RFC5651 25-26]

The RMT WG designed LCT for best effort (BE) service. BE service does not guarantee packet reception or packet reception order. BE service does not provide support for reliability or flow/ congestion control. LCT does not provide any of these services on its own. ALC, however, uses LCT along with FEC and WEBRC to provide reliable, multi-rate congestion controlled layered transport. [RFC5651 27]

Reliable Multicast Building block: WEBRC

WEBRC Description

As per RFC 2357, the use of any reliable multicast protocol in the Internet requires an adequate congestion control scheme. Furthermore, ALC must support RFC3738, the Wave and Equation Based Rate Congestion Control (WEBRC) Building Block (RFC5775 10). WEBRC provides multiple rate congestion control for data delivery. Similar to FCAST, ALC, LCT and multicast FEC, the RMT WG designs WEBRC to support protocols for IP Multicast. In the spirit of massive scalability, WEBRC requires no feedback and uses a completely receiver driven congestion control protocol. WEBRC enables a single sender to deliver data to individual receivers at the fastest possible rate, even in a highly heterogeneous network architecture. In other words, WEBRC dynamically varies the reception rate of each RX independent of other receivers (RFC3738 1). WEBRC competes fairly with TCP and similar congestion control sessions (RFC3738 4).

WEBRC Architecture Definition

A single sender transmits packets to multiple channels. The sender designates one channel as the base channel, the remaining are called wave channels. Each channel starts off at a high packet rate, after each equal-spaced period of time, the packet rate of that channel reduces until the channel is quiescent. A channel’s cycle from full rate to quiescence takes a configurable number of periods, by default their aggregate summing to a long duration of time (several minutes). At the end of each period, the RX joins or leaves channels depending on if the aggregate of the current TX rates allows the RX to reach its target RX rate. At the end of each period the RX orders each wave channel into layers, based on their TX rates (the higher the rate, the higher the layer). The designation of wave channel to a layer, therefore, varies cyclically over time. Once joined, an RX stays with a channel until that channel becomes quiescent. [RFC3738 8]

A key metric for each receiver, therefore, is the target reception rate. The target reception rate drives the number of layers (and by extension, channels) that a receiver must join. The RX measures and performs calculations on congestion control parameters (e.g. the average loss probability and the average RTT) and makes decisions on how to increase or decrease its reception rate based on these parameters. The RX based approach of WEBRC suits itself to protocols where the sender handles multiple concurrent connections and therefore WEBRC is suitable as a building block for multicast congestion control. An RX with a slow connection does not slow down RX with faster connections. [RFC3738 13-23]

WEBRC Operations

When WEBRC receives packets from ALC, WEBRC first checks to see that the packets belong to the appropriate session before applying WEBRC. ALC uses LCT, so WEBRC looks to the LCT header to find the (sender IP address, TSI) tuple that denotes what session a received packet belongs to (RFC5651 12). The multicast network identifies a channel to receivers via a (sender IP address, multicast group address) pair, and the receiver sends messages to join and leave the channel to the multicast group address. When the RX initiates a session, it must join the base channel. The packets on the base channel help the RX orient itself in terms of what the current time slot index is, which in turn allows the RX to know the relative rates on the wave channels. The RX orders these wave channels into layers, from lowest to highest rates. The RX remains joined to the base channel for the duration of its participation in the session. [RFC3738 8]

As mentioned earlier, the lowest layer has lowest rate and highest layer has highest rate. Each time a wave channel becomes active, it becomes the highest layer. At the end of each time slot the lowest-layer wave channel deactivates and all channels move down a layer. A RX always leaves the lowest layer when it deactivates.

After joining a session, the RX adjusts its rate upwards by joining wave channels in sequence, starting with the lowest layer and moving towards the highest. The rates on the active wave channels are decreasing with time so the receiver adjusts its rate downward simply by refraining from joining additional wave channels. The layer ordering among the channels changes dynamically with time so the RX must monitor the Current Time Slot Indicator (CTSI).

Once the receiver joins a wave channel, the receiver remains joined to the wave channel until it deactivates (RFC3738 8). The following diagram illustrates the relationship between wave channels, layers and target reception rate.



In the above figure, assume the receiver wants a target rate of 7λ/4 packets per second (pps). This means the receiver must join the base (λ/4pps), layer 0 (λ/4pps), layer 1 (λ/2pps) and layer 2 (3λ/4pps). The receiver joins layers by joining underlying channels, sending joins and leaves to their respective multicast addresses. We see in the figure that for time t, layer 2 contains wave channel 4, layer 1 contains wave channel 3 and layer 0 contains wave channel 2. The receiver leaves channel 1 (which is now quiescent). The receiver stays joined to the base and wave channels 3 and 2. The receiver sends a join to wave channel 4. At time t+1, the layers change again. The receiver stays joined to the base, 4 and 3. The receiver leaves channel 2 and joins channel 0. For time t+2, the receiver stays joined to the base, 0 and 4. The receiver leaves channel 3 and joins channel 1.

Reliable Multicast Building Block: FEC

FEC Building Block Description

Content Delivery Protocols (CDP) have many options available to them to increase reliability. We’ll first read about two non-forward error correction (FEC) based options: automatic request for retransmission (ARQ) and data carousels. First, consider ARQ. If an ARQ receiver does not receive a packet or receives a corrupted packet, the receiver asks the sender to re-transmit the packet. ARQ therefore, requires a back channel and does not scale well for one to many CDP. Using ARQ on one to many CDP sets the architecture up for feedback implosions and “NACK of death” (imagine 1e+7 receivers simultaneously detecting dropped data and asking for a re-transmission). In addition, in a network where different receivers have different loss patterns, ARQ wastes resources. RX would need to wait for the re-transmissions of packets that other receivers lost, even if the RX already have those data. [RFC5052 2]

A data carousel solution partitions objects into equal length pieces of data (source symbols), puts them into packets and cycles through and sends these packets. Each RX receives the packets until they have a copy of every packet. While the data carousel solution requires no back channel, if an RX misses a packet, the RX has to wait on Carousel until it’s sent again. [RFC6968 8]



RFC 3454 describes, therefore, how to use FEC codes to augment/ provide reliability for one-to-many reliable data transport using IP multicast. RFC 3454 uses the same packets containing FEC data to simultaneously repair different packet loss patterns at multiple RX. [RFC3453 4]

FEC has multiple benefits for our FCAST/ALC architecture. FEC augments reliability and overcomes erasures (losses) and bit level corruption. The primary application of FEC to IP multicast, however, is an erasure code since the IP multicast NW layers detect (bit level) corrupted packets and discard them (or the transport layers will use packet authentication to discard corrupted packets) (RFC3453 3).

FEC Operation

The data source inputs into FEC some number k of equal length source symbols. The FEC encoder then generates some number of encoding symbols that are of the same length as the source symbols. The packets are placed into packets and then sent. On the receiving side, the RX feeds the encoded symbols into a decoder to recreate an exact copy of the k source symbols. ALC can use block or expandable FEC codes for the underlying FEC building block. [RFC5775 11]

With a block encoder, we input k source symbols and a constant number n. The encoder generates a total of n encoding symbols. The encoder is systematic if it generates n-k redundant symbols yielding an encoding block of n encoding symbols in total composed of the k source symbols and the n-k redundant symbols. With a block encoder, any k of the n encoding symbols in the encoding block is sufficient to reconstruct the original k source symbols. [RFC3453 5-6]

An expandable FEC encoder takes input of k source symbols and generates as many unique encoding symbols as requested on demand. At the receiver side, any k of the unique encoding symbols is enough to reconstruct the original k source symbols. [RFC3453 7]


This post discusses three technologies that enable ALC for reliable multicast: LCT, WEBRC and the FEC building block. The next blog post discusses an Architecture that integrates all of the enabling technologies.


[RFC3453] Luby, M., Vicisano, L., Gemmell, J., Rizzo, L., Handley, H. and J. Crowcroft, “The Use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) in Reliable Multicast”, RFC 3453 December 2002.

[RFC3738] Luby, M. and V. Goyal, “Wave and Equation Based Rate Control (WEBRC) Building Block”, RFC 3738, April 2004.

[RFC5651] Luby, M., Watson, M. and L. Vicisano, “Layered Coding Transport (LCT) Building Block”, RFC 5651, October 2009.

[RFC5775] Luby, P., Watson, P. and L. Vicisano, “Asynchronous Layered Coding (ALC) Protocol Instantiation”, RFC 5775, April 2010.

[RFC6968] Roca, V. and B. Adamson, “FCAST: Scalable Object Delivery for the ALC and NORM Protocols”, RFC 6968, July 2013.

[RFC5052] Watson, M., Luby, M. and L. Vicisano, “Forward Error Correction (FEC) Building Block”, RFC 5052, August 2007.